Main Article Content
The Fool’s Costume in Documents, Images and Performance
The fool’s costume, as it appears in the illustrations of the Psalms or the paintings of the medieval period and Renaissance, differs from the costume that the jesters wore at the court of the nobles or kings, be they innocent or artificial fools. The fool’s image with his clothes ragged and baggy or multicolored, with bells and donkey’s ears or the comb of a rooster, could be found in the street performances, during the days of the Carnival, in the popular theater or on stage, especially during the Elizabethan period. Symbol of the mirth, mobility and disorder that characterize the fool, the fool's costume expresses both the characteristics of his inner life and the disorder in the lives of other people. The present paper aims to analyze the costume of the fool, as it appears in the illustrations and documents of the medieval and Renaissance times, as well as in some productions of Shakespeare's plays staged by the Royal Shakespeare Company, based on the images existing in the digital library of this English theater company.
This work is licensed under a CC BY Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits any use, reproduction, distribution, self-archiving and citation of the work as long as the authors are credited. The complete bibliographical data of Symbolon Journal must also be indicated, which you can find in the How to cite section on this page. If possible, please also place a link leading to the original publication. Copyright of articles belongs to the authors.
ARMIN, Robert, 1842, Fools and jesters: with a reprint of Robert Armin's Nest of ninnies, 1608, With an Introduction and Notes, London: Printed for The Shakespeare Society.
BANCOCK, Barbara, 1984, „Arrange Me into Disorder: Fragments and Reflections on Ritual Clowning”, în: Rite, drama, festival, spectacle: rehearsals toward a theory of cultural performance, Edited by John J. MacAloon, Philadelphia: A Publication of the Institute for the Study of Human Issues.
BATE, Jonathan, RASMUSSEN, Eric, 2010, “Twelfth Night In Performance: The RSC and Beyond” în William Shakespeare, Twelfth Night, Macmillan International Higher Education.
BEAUMONT, Francis, FLETCHER, John, 1910, The works of Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher, Cambridge English Classics in ten volumes, Volume VIII, Cambridge, The text edited by A. R. Waller, Cambridge University Press.
BOSKIN, Joseph, 1986, Sambo: The Rise and Demise of an American Jester, New York: Oxford UP.
COHN, Albert, 1865, Shakespeare in Germany in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; an account of English actors in Germany and the Netherlands, and of the Plays performed by them in the same period, London and Berlin: Asher & Co.
DOUCE, Francis, 1807, Illustrations of Shakspeare, and of Ancient Manners: with Dissertations on the Clowns and Fools of Shakspeare; on the Collection of Popular Tales Entitled Gesta Romanorum; and on the English Morris Dance. The Engravings on Wood by J. Berryman. In Two Volumes. Vol. 1. 2. Vol. 2, London: Printed for Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme, Paternoster Row.
ENGLAND, George, (editor), 1966, The Towneley plays, Re-edited from the unique MS, With Side-notes and Introduction by Alfred W. Pollard, Published for the Early English text society by H. Milford, London: Oxford University Press.
GAY, Penny, 2002, As She Likes It: Shakespeare's Unruly Women, Gender in Performance, London and New York, Routledge.
GREENE, Robert 1963, Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay, Edited by Daniel Seltzer, Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press.
GREG, Walter, (editor), 1904, Henslowe's diary, Part I. Text, London: A.H. Bullen.
GREIF, Karen, 1988, “A Star Is Born: Feste on the Modern Stage”, Shakespeare Quarterly 39: 61-78.
HALLIWELL-PHILLIPPS, James, (editor) 1844, Tarlton's Jests, and News out of purgatory, With Notes and some Accounts of the life of Tarlton by James Orchard Halliwell-Phillipps, London: Printed for the Shakespeare society.
HARRIS, Nicolas, (editor), 1830, Privy purse expenses of Elizabeth of York: wardrobe accounts of Edward the Fourth, London: W. Pickering.
HAWES, Stephan, 1555 The Pastime of Pleasure: An Allegorical Poem, în: Early English Poetry, Ballads and Popular Literature of the Middle Ages, 1846, Edited from Original Manuscripts and Scarce Publications by T. Richards, Volume XVIII, London: [Percy Society].
HEYWOOD, John, 1987, A critical edition of The Play of the wether, edited by Vicki Knudsen Robinson, The Renaissance Imagination, Volume 27, New York & London: Garland Publishing, Inc.
HOLLAND, Peter, 2010, Shakespeare Survey: Volume 63, Shakespeare's English Histories and Their Afterlives, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
HOPKINS, Justin B., 2016, „Review of Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night [directed by David Farr for the Royal Shakespeare Company] at the Royal Shakespeare Theatre, Stratford-upon-Avon, 5 August 2012”, Shakespeare, Vol. 12, No. 4.
IVES, E. W., 1960, ‘Tom Skelton - a seventeenth-century jester’, Shakespeare Survey 13: 90-105.
JANIK, Vicki K., (editor), 1998, Fools and Jester in Literature, Art and History, A Bio-Bibliographical Sourcebook, Westport, Connecticut – London: Greenwood Press.
JONSON, Ben, 1905, The devil is an ass, Yale Studies in English, Albert S. Cook editor, Vol. 29, Edited with Introduction, Notes and Glossary by William Savage Johnson, New York: H. Holt and Company.
JONSON, Ben, 1905, The Staple of News, Yale Studies in English, Albert S. Cook editor, Vol. 28, Edited with Introduction, Notes and Glossary by De Winter, New York: H. Holt and Company.
JONSON, Ben, 1966, Epicoene or The silent woman, Edited by L.A. Beaurline, Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press.
KEMP, William, Kemps nine daies wonder, 1600. The Bodleian Libraries, The University of Oxford, Shelfmark: 14164470, în: British Library – All Discovering Literature: Shakespeare & Renaissance collection items, London, disponibil la: https://www.bl.uk/collection-items/will-kemps-nine-days-wonder-1600
LINTHICUM, M. Channing, 1936, Costume In The Drama Of Shakespeare And His Contemporaries, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
MEAGHER, John C., 2003, Pursuing Shakespeare's Dramaturgy: Some Contexts, Resources, and Strategies in His Playmaking, New Jersey, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press.
Psalter and Book of Hours, Use of Saint-Omer, Origin: France, N. (1276), disponibil la: http://www.bl.uk/catalogues/illuminatedmanuscripts/ILLUMIN.ASP?Size=mid&IllID=8335
Psalter France, W. (Rouen?), and England or Netherlands, S.; last quarter of the 15th century, or 1st quarter of the 16th century, disponibil la: https://www.bl.uk/catalogues/illuminatedmanuscripts/ILLUMIN.ASP?Size=mid&IllID=19732
Psalter of Henry VIII (The), England, S. E. (London); c. 1540-1541, Attribution: Jean Mallard, disponibil la URL: http://www.bl.uk/catalogues/illuminatedmanuscripts /ILLUMIN.ASP?Size=mid&IllID=47741
Psalter with Canticles and the Office of the Dead (The 'Princess Joan Psalter'), England, S. E. (probably London or East Anglia); 1st quarter of the 15th century, Attribution: Johannes, disponibil la: https://www.bl.uk/catalogues/illuminatedmanuscripts/ILLUMIN.ASP?Size=mid&IllID=41009
SCHELLING, Felix Emmanuel, 2017, The English Chronicle Play: A Study in the Popular Historical Literature Environing Shakespeare, Classic Reprint Series, London, Forgotten Books.
SHAKESPEARE, William, 1986, Opere complete, Volumul 5, A Douăsprezecea Noapte sau Ce Doriți, traducere de Mihnea Gheorghiu, Ediție îngrijită și comentarii de Leon D. Levițchi, Note de Virgiliu Ștefănescu-Drăgănești, București, Editura Univers.
SOUTHWORTH, John, 1998, Fools and Jesters at the English Court, London: Sutton Publishing.
STOPES, C.C., 1914, Shakespeare’s Environment, London: G. Bell and Sons, Ltd.
WAGER, William, 1910, The longer thou livest the more fool thou art, c. 1568, The Tudor Facsimile Text Under the Supervision and Editorship of John S. Farmer, London, Issued for subscribers by the ed. of the Tudor facsimile texts.
WILES, David, 2005, Shakespeare's clown. Actor and text in the Elizabethan playhouse, New York: Cambridge University Press.
WILLEFORD, William, 1969, The fool and his scepter: a study in clowns and jesters and their audience, Northwestern University Press.
The British Library, 2019, Catalogue of Illuminated Manuscripts, [accesat 18 iunie 2020], disponibil la URL: http://www.bl.uk/catalogues/illuminate dmanuscripts/welcome.htm
Royal Shakespeare Company, 2020, Image Library, [accesat 5 iunie 2020], disponibil la URL: https://images.rsc.org.uk/action/viewHome
Institutul Național al Patrimoniului, 2020, Direcția Patrimoniului Mobil, Imaterial și Digital [accesat 30 iunie 2020], disponibil la URL: http://www.cimec.ro /SCRIPTS/TeatreNou/prem_detaliu_pag.asp?sq=A+DOU%C4%82SPREZECEA+NOAPTE&sq3=A
Teatrul de Nord, 2020, [accesat 30 iunie 2020], disponibil la URL: https://www.teatrul denord.ro/spectacol/387/A-DOU%C4%82SPREZECEA-NOAPTE#hide_lb
Teatrul Metropolis, 2020, [accesat 30 iunie 2020], disponibil la URL: https://www. teatrulmetropolis.ro/spectacole#/detalii/66.